Case Study 4 Generalization Or Specialization Of Cells

  • I support both generalization and specialization

    I am an Engineer, when I was a student I thought that is it required to study all the subjects? I thought it was not useful for me. But when I brought to do my Masters, I realized that all subjects are useful. Someone may specialize in one particular but everyone must be generalize.

  • Both are necessary

    Actually i think that both generalization and specialization are required.One can not stick on one particular things because in today's era you should be known all the basic things about any subject.If we take one example that person occurs some symptoms on his skin then we first go to the physician not to a surgeon.

  • Both are necessary

    Actually i think that both generalization and specialization are required.One can not stick on one particular things because in today's era you should be known all the basic things about any subject.If we take one example that person occurs some symptoms on his skin then we first go to the physician not to a surgeon.

  • I support both generalization as well as specialization

    In todays fast paced world nobody can be a master of anything. The simple reason being there are developments coming up every day in every field. But, definitely one can stay updated on any subject that interests him the most. Having an overall knowledge of all aspects is always best. Humans in current society are facing variety of problems. One should have an all round background knowledge to decide wisely on things.

  • I support for Both Generalization and specialisation

    In our daily life both the things are necessary.In the point of Generalization we should be in above average in all stuff.Why because we cant help our life style being as specialization.If Person is specialist in accounting or family budget planning then remaining things like family events and spirituality goes dump.


    In point of specialization we cant help our business and profession being generalization,Why because little bit knowledge will not serve any purpose in that particular era.So, we need specialist in that area.

  • Job or Business

    Specialization in a particular field is a must have in this era...But only if you want to sell your soul for 40+ years doing the same redundant work just to make the owner richer.
    Generalisation is required for doing any kind of work at any point of time and is a number one quality of any entrepreneur's success. If a person can tackle any hindrance of business to some limit instead of just being able to overcome one area like Sales, he will be poor for the rest of his life..

  • Generalization vs. Specialization

    N my opinion most people that are specialists are far more capable that people that consider themselves generalists. A specialist has put the time and energy necessary into studying a topic to come close to mastering it, this process develops other useful skills. A generalist pursues whatever whims occur, they may branch out further than a specialist, but in an environment with several specialists of different areas, it would seem hard to find a role for the generalist. In an "all-by-myself" situation it might be more useful to be above-average at everything; in a community setting, it seems more sensible to be average in most areas and far-above-average in others.

  • Today very much needed specialization than generalization

    I remember the days when if I fell ill, my mother would take me to a
    general physician. The doctor would prescribe some medicines as per his
    initial diagnosis of the illness and past experience. In case of a
    failure in effectiveness of the medicine, other options were sought to
    address the illness. Zooming ahead to 2012, today we look at
    specialization in all fields. Today if the child’s ear is blocked the
    mother will take him to an ENT specialist.

    Laws of economics support the practice, whereby, specialization and
    division of labor is expected to provide highest levels of productivity.
    This idea was, first, put forth by Mr. Adam Smith, the father of modern
    economics, in his book ‘Wealth of the Nations’. Under this regime each
    worker becomes an expert in one isolated area of production, thus
    increasing his efficiency. The fact that laborers do not have to switch
    tasks during the day further saves time and money. Specialization has
    also been the basis of trade between nations. The countries specialized
    in commodities that their resources could produce efficiently and then
    proceeded to trade. It was observed that the world productivity levels
    improved massively.

    The world today is shifting from demanding a “jack of all trades” to
    demanding the “master”. The abundance of information in today’s world
    leads to any person adept at internet search skills is able to provide a
    general perspective about any topic under the sun. The need is to be
    able to provide an in-depth idea about the topic. Also, the level of
    competition in today’s world leaves no scope for error and thereby,
    comes the demand for specialization. With a team of such specialists,
    the performance delivered tends to have been scrutinized from the
    different perspectives, leaving lesser scope for flaws.

    The shift to specialization has influenced the growth of new industries
    and markets. It has also influenced our lifestyle, career choices and
    decisions. The need of the hour today is to hone the skill that exists
    nowhere but in yourself and thereby making oneself indispensable.

  • Generalization is a good thing.

    Generalization is a good thing. When you know a lot of nonspecific stuff about something, you are more likely to find a place in the world. If you are so specific that only one or two places will know what you are about and accept you, it makes life extremely hard.

  • I support both generalization as well as specialization

    In some cases generalization is required while in some cases specialization is required. Firstly If u talk about generalization if you look at the area of your life, it doesn’t make sense to specialize. What is the point of becoming extremely good in your financial life if your health, relationships or spirituality are in the dumps? Balance across all areas of your life is essential, so specialization here doesn’t really work.

    If u look at specialization point of view , If you are getting heart surgery you want the doctor that is an expert in heart surgery, not someone who knows a little about surgery, a little about carpentry and a little about accounting. Specialization in business or career focuses is very important.

  • How many cells do humans have and where do they come from?

    Humans and many other sexually reproducing multicellular organisms begin life as a single cell. This one generalized cell undergoes mitosis repeatedly to produce all of the cells in an organism's body. It is estimated that the body of the average person has ~100 trillion cells.

    During human embryonic development, the zygote produces about 250 different specialized cell types. Most of these cells have identical copies of the 23 pairs of chromosomes that were present in the original zygote, but the cells do not look or function alike. The complex process that turns generalized cell into specialized one is called differentiation.

    What is the basic concept of cell specialization?

    You can think of generalized cell as a box of Lego blocks with different instructions. The Lego pieces are the materials in the cell (such as proteins) and the instructions are the information coded in the DNA. The same Lego pieces can be either used to build a model car or an airplane or a boat. Depending on what specialized toy the person wants to play with, he/she builds a car, a boat or an airplane.

    Just like a person must decide what to build with a Lego kit, cells must have something that tells them what to differentiate into. Signals from their surrounding environment tell cells how to differentiate. These signals trigger a pre-defined set of steps, called genetic program, which the cell must follow in order to become a particular cell type. The program increases expression of some genes, which in turn increases the number of certain proteins. Just as important though, many genes are shut off or prevented from being expressed.

    In this way, the program can modify the general cell shape, the number and location of the organelles, and how long the cell will live. Cells do not always go immediately to their final differentiated state. They can partially differentiate, then stop and wait for the appropriate signal to complete the process.

    There are genetic programs for every cell type in an organism. Once one of these programs has started, a cell can only rarely back up and become a different cell type. Just like if you build a Lego toy and glued the pieces together. Once the toy is finished and dried, it is hard to tear it apart and turn it into another toy.

    What are examples of specialized cells?

    A heart muscle cell must be able to contract. It also needs access to a lot of energy molecules known as ATP. So the genetic program for a heart muscle cell turns on the genes for actin, myosin, and other contractile proteins. It also makes the cells produce more mitochondria, which are organelles involved in the production of ATP.

    Skeleton muscles are made off thousands of muscle fibers and muscle fibers are the product of the fusion of many myoblasts (premuscle cells) 2. Myoblasts leave the cell cycle and turn on the machinery that allows them to fuse with other myoblasts.

    This video shows the differentiation of premuscle cells (myoblasts) to skeleton muscle cells (myocytes) (Real-time length = 48h).

    Another good example of differentiation is blood cell formation, which shown in the figure below.


    Most cells in the intermediate stages of blood formation are found in bone marrow. Only the final, fully differentiated red and white blood cells will leave the marrow to reside in blood and other tissues. When looking at the image, do not focus on individual cell names; look at the overall process instead. The generalized cell at the top of the picture can differentiate to become platelets, red blood cells, white blood cells, macrophages, and all the other cell types at the bottom of the figure. Each arrow is a step in the process of differentiation that we can see and measure. Each of these steps is controlled by a specific genetic program that turns on some genes, but also turns off others. By turning off some genes, the genetic program limits what the cell can become. For example, once a cell starts down the path to become a red blood cell (the second path from the left), it cannot change into a white blood cell (the next three paths beside it). This is because some of the genes needed for the cell to become a white blood cell have already been turned off.


    References:

    1. Cellular Differentiation. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cellular_differentiation. August 3, 2011.
    2. Karp, G. Cell and molecular biology, 5th edition. New Jersey: John Wiley and Sons Inc, 2008. Print. Pp. 15, 262, 601.
    3. Ralston, A. & K. Shaw. Gene expression regulates cell differentiation. Nature Education. 2008. 1(1), online. http://www.nature.com/scitable/topicpage/gene-ex<x>pression-regulates-cell-differentiation-931. Accessed 8/3/11.
    4. Di­az-Flores L Jr, Madrid JF, Gutierrez R, Varela H, Valladares F, Alvarez-Argelles H, Di­az-Flores L. Adult stem and transit-amplifying cell location. Histol Histopathol. 2006. 21(9):995-1027.


    This text is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 3.0 Unported License.

    One thought on “Case Study 4 Generalization Or Specialization Of Cells

    Leave a Reply

    Your email address will not be published. Required fields are marked *