The assignment: write a précis, in 800-1000 words (approximately four double-spaced pages), of the first two-thirds of “Reading: An Intertextual Activity,” by Robert Scholes. Your precis should cover Scholes’s essay through the top of page 28.
What the heck is going on here, what is a precis?
Derived from French, the word “précis” means a summary. So, if your professors give you such writing assignments, they want you to summarize some text and convey the summary in minimum words.
- A critical précis is a clear, concise, and logical summary of a passage preserving its essential ideas only.
Before writing a précis, make sure you clearly understand its peculiarities and specification.
The first and foremost:
A précis is NOT an essay or re-writing. It shouldn’t tell but summarize a core essence of the original document and provide readers with the information about its significance and worth.
In other words:
Even if your audience didn’t read the original abstract, they should have a clear idea about its content and meaning after checking your précis. A précis explains the main point and structure of the original work but doesn’t offer any evaluations or your personal reactions.
A Critical Précis Characteristics
When assigned to write a critical précis, make sure you understand its characteristics which are:
- A précis is a critical summary of writing abstracts.
- A précis is NOT re-writing or interpretation of the original.
- It is NOT written with words from the original, though you are welcome to use some quotes if appropriate.
- It summarizes the content of the original.
- A précis reveals a meaning of the original and explains its value.
- As a rule, a précis is 1/4 of the original in length, except as noted.
- It follows the standard format: an author’s thesis and methods he uses to represent it, results, and conclusion.
Why do professors assign a critical précis writing to students?
First, it helps them understand how good you are with critical thinking, summarizing, and highlighting the crucial information. And second, writing a précis is a great way of learning new material.
A Critical Précis Qualities
A précis will demonstrate your writing skills to professors, as well as your ability to express your thoughts intelligibly. Make sure your paper highlights the following qualities:
- Clarity, which means your reader should understand what a writer intended to convey. Achieve it through using simple language and structure of your precis.
- Correctness, which means you should watch spelling, grammar, and punctuation you use, as well as facts, figures, and dates you address.
- Objectivity, which means candid construal of the information. Don’t give your opinion in a précis.
- Coherence, which means the logical interconnection of the original’s ideas. Your audience shouldn’t lose their interest while reading.
- Conciseness, which means avoiding unnecessary details in your précis. Don’t omit essential facts but avoid wordy expressions, repetitions, wateriness, etc.
How to Write A Critical Précis
“I didn’t have time to write a short letter, so I wrote a long one instead.” ― Mark Twain
One of the most famous American essayists, Mr. Twain nailed it: short doesn’t equal quick and easy to write, especially if you write a summary, not simple re-writing of the original. So, the process of writing a précis starts with critical reading and research:
- Read the original piece carefully.
- Specify its main points and arguments.
- Consider the evidence used by the author.
- Research unfamiliar material (definitions, statements, unknown words, data, etc.)
- Identify the appeals used by the writer.
- Evaluate how the author conveyed meaning.
- Restate the thesis.
- Write a 1-2 sentence summary of each section of the article.
- Describe the piece in your own words.
- Reread the article and compare it with your summary.
Now it’s time to start writing the final draft of your critical précis. Begin with paraphrasing the thesis and your 1-2 sentence statements, then review it to make sure you’ve explained the main point, identified the evidence, and used the logical structure.
Finally, check your précis for clarity, correctness, and coherence.
This sample of a critical précis will help to understand the sense of such a writing assignment better.
Sandra M. Gilbert, professor of English at the University of California, Davis, in her essay “Plain Jane’s Progress” (1977), suggests that Charlotte Brontë intended Jane Eyre to resemble John Bunyan’s Pilgrim’s Progress in that Jane’s pilgrimage through a series of events based on the enclosure and escape motif eventually lead toward the equality that Brontë herself sought. Gilbert supports this conclusion by using the structure of the novel to highlight the places Jane has been confined, the changes she undergoes during the process of escape, and the individuals and experiences that lead to her maturation concluding that “this marriage of true minds at Ferndean – this is the way” (501). Her purpose is to help readers see the role of women in Victorian England in order to help them understand the uniqueness and daring of Brontë’s work. She establishes a formal relationship with her audience of literary scholars interested in feminist criticism who are familiar with the work of Brontë, Bunyan, Lord Byron and others and are intrigued by feminist theory as it relates to Victorian literature.
Follow the Structure
A critical précis is not an essay, but its structure looks the same. As well as an essay, a precis consists of three parts:
- the author
- the title of the piece
- the date of its publishing (in parentheses)
- power verbs determining the author’s thesis (such as
- “explains”, “argues”, “proves”, etc.)
This is a single sentence including the following information:
the thesis itself
Some experts suggest starting your précis with a hook and then restate the author’s thesis; others say this type of academic writing doesn’t need hooks in introduction. The best decision would be asking a professor about the format of introduction you may use.
Example of a critical précis introduction:
Each paragraph explains a separate section of the original piece, providing the author’s evidence, purpose, and ideas. Don’t forget that you can’t interpret arguments from your point of view but should analyze the author’s stands on an issue. Feel free to use quotes here, but be brief and attribute them correctly.
This sample of a critical précis makes it all clear:
In her article “Who Cares if Johnny Can’t Read?” (1997), Larissa MacFarquhar asserts that Americans are reading more than ever despite claims to the contrary and that it is time to reconsider why we value reading so much, especially certain kinds of “high culture” reading. MacFarquhar supports her claims about American reading habits with facts and statistics that compare past and present reading practices, and she challenges common assumptions by raising questions about reading’s intrinsic value. Her purpose is to dispel certain myths about reading in order to raise new and more important questions about the value of reading and other media in our culture. She seems to have a young, hip, somewhat irreverent audience in mind because her tome is sarcastic, and she suggests that the ides she opposes are old-fashioned positions.
It should restate the main idea. Summarize everything and remember to avoid any personal statements about the original piece.
More samples needed to understand the nature of a critical précis and get a better idea of how to write it right? No problem!
In her essay “Cyberspace and Identity” (1999), Sherry Turkle argues that “today’s life on the screen dramatizes and concretizes a range of cultural trends that encourage us to think of identity in terms of multiplicity and flexibility” (272). Turkle supports her assertion by juxtaposing theories of cyberspace and identity formation with older understandings of identity found in psychology, sociology, and philosophy. Her purpose is to show readers that theories on cyberspace and identity, which claim that identity is multiple and cyclical, do not overturn, but rather add to our understandings of identity in order to encourage her audience “to rethink our relationship to the computer culture and psychoanalytic culture as proudly held joint citizenship” (278). Turkle’s tone assumes a highly educated audience who is familiar with theories not only of cyberspace and identity, but sociology and psychology as well.
Charles S. Peirce’s article “The Fixation of Belief” (1877) asserts that humans have psychological and social mechanisms designed to protect and cement (or “fix”) our beliefs. Peirce backs this claim up with descriptions of four methods of fixing belief, pointing out the effectiveness and potential weaknesses of each method. Peirce’s purpose is to point out the ways that people commonly establish their belief systems in order to jolt the awareness of the reader into considering how their own belief system may the product of such methods and to consider what Peirce calls “the method of science” as a progressive alternative to the other three. Given the technical language used in the article, Peirce is writing to a well-educated audience with some knowledge of philosophy and history and a willingness to consider other ways of thinking.
image source: Unsplash
What is a précis? The definition
Précis, from the Old French and literally meaning “cut short” (dictionary.com), is a concise summary of an article or other work. The précis, then, explains the main point, logical support, and structure of the original work but in greatly condensed form. The précis is objective, unlike a critical analysis, which evaluates the argument and use of evidence within an article. Thus, the précis does not offer evaluations about a text, nor does it include personal reaction to a text.
How should a writer begin to write a précis? The process
- Read and annotate the article or other text.
- Reflect on the author's purpose.
- Consider the kinds of evidence the author uses.
- Restate the author's thesis in your own words.
- Write a one or two sentence summary of each section or subdivision of the article.
- Reread the article to compare it with your summary notes.
- Begin writing, using your paraphrase of the thesis and your one or two sentence summary statements.
- Review your précis to confirm that you have explained the main point of the article, identified the supporting evidence that the writer uses, and have used the same logical structure as the text.
- Finally, check for clarity, coherence, and correctness.
How should a précis be structured? The format
Some writers offer a hook; explain the author's broad topic; and then restate the author's thesis, while others may open with a restatement of the author's thesis and then explain the broader framework of the subject. In order to determine which approach would best suit the assignment, ask your professor about the format of the introduction. In either format, the restatement of the thesis should include the name of the author, the title of the article, and the date of its publication, as the following illustrates: “In his influential 1936 essay, “Beowulf: The Monsters and the Critics,” J.R.R. Tolkien criticizes scholars of this day for mining Beowulf solely for historic evidence about the Anglo-Saxon period, rather than reading the poem as a great and inspiring work of literature.”
Generally, each body paragraph should explain a separate section of the text and should provide the evidence (though in greatly condensed form) that the writer has used to support that section. If used, quotations should be brief, should be correctly introduced or incorporated, and should be correctly attributed.
The conclusion should restate the main idea of the text and reiterate the main support. Remember to avoid any personal statements about the text.
By Teresa Sweeney and Fran Hooker