Essays On Criticism

An Essay on Criticism was the first major poem written by the English writer Alexander Pope (1688–1744). However, despite the title, the poem is not as much an original analysis as it is a compilation of Pope's various literary opinions. A reading of the poem makes it clear that he is addressing not so much the ingenuous reader as the intending writer. It is written in a type of rhyming verse called heroic couplets.

The poem first appeared in 1711, but was written in 1709. It is clear from Pope's correspondence that many of the poem's ideas had existed in prose form since at least 1706. It is a verse essay written in the Horatian mode and is primarily concerned with how writers and critics behave in the new literary commerce of Pope's contemporary age. The poem covers a range of good criticism and advice. It also represents many of the chief literary ideals of Pope's age.

Quotes[edit]

Part I[edit]

  • Ten Censure wrong for one who Writes amiss.
  • 'Tis with our judgements as our watches, none
    Go just alike, yet each believes his own.
    • Line 9. Compare: "But as when an authentic watch is shown, Each man winds up and rectifies his own, So in our very judgments", John Suckling, Aglaura, Epilogue.
  • Let such teach others who themselves excel,
    And censure freely who have written well.
  • Some are bewildered in the maze of schools,
    And some made coxcombs nature meant but fools.
  • One science only will one genius fit:
    So vast is art, so narrow human wit.
  • Wit and judgment often are at strife,
    Though meant each other's aid, like man and wife.
  • From vulgar bounds with brave disorder part,
    And snatch a grace beyond the reach of art.
  • Some Figures monstrous and mis-shap'd appear,
    Consider'd singly, or beheld too near,
    Which, but proportion'd to their Light, or Place,
    Due Distance reconciles to Form and Grace.
  • A prudent Chief not always must display
    His Pow'rs in equal Ranks, and fair Array,
    But with th' Occasion and the Place comply,
    Conceal his Force, nay seem sometimes to Fly.

    Those oft are Stratagems which Errors seem,
    Nor is it Homer Nods, but We that Dream.
    • Line 175 - 179. Compare: "Quandoque bonus dormitat Homerus" (translated: "Even the worthy Homer some times nods"), Horace, De Arte Poetica, 359.

Part II[edit]

  • Of all the causes which conspire to blind
    Man's erring judgment, and misguide the mind;
    What the weak head with strongest bias rules, —
    Is pride, the never-failing vice of fools.
  • Trust not your self; but your Defects to know,
    Make use of ev'ry Friend — and ev'ry Foe.
  • A little Learning is a dang'rous Thing;
    Drink deep, or taste not the Pierian Spring:
    There shallow Draughts intoxicate the Brain,
    And drinking largely sobers us again.
    • Commonly misquoted as a proverb, "A little knowledge is a dangerous thing," which ironically illustrates the point.
    • Lines 15-18. Compare: "Travel, in the younger sort, is a part of education; in the elder, a part of experience. He that travelleth into a country before he hath some entrance into the language, goeth to school, and not to travel", Francis Bacon, Of Travel.
  • Hills peep o'er hills, and Alps on Alps arise!
  • 'Tis not a lip, or eye, we beauty call,
    But the joint force and full result of all.
  • Whoever thinks a faultless piece to see,
    Thinks what ne'er was, nor is, nor e'er shall be.
    • Line 53. Compare: "'High characters', cries one, and he would see / Things that ne’er were, nor are, nor e'er will be", John Suckling, The Goblins, Epilogue.
  • True wit is nature to advantage dressed,
    What oft was thought, but ne'er so well expressed.
  • Words are like leaves; and where they most abound,
    Much fruit of sense beneath is rarely found.
  • Such labored nothings, in so strange a style,
    Amaze th' unlearned, and make the learned smile.
  • In words, as fashions, the same rule will hold,
    Alike fantastic if too new or old:
    Be not the first by whom the new are tried,
    Nor yet the last to lay the old aside.
  • As some to church repair,
    Not for the doctrine, but the music there.
    These equal syllables alone require,
    Though oft the ear the open vowels tire;
    While expletives their feeble aid do join,
    And ten low words oft creep in one dull line.
  • Then, at the last and only couplet fraught
    With some unmeaning thing they call a thought,
    A needless Alexandrine ends the song,
    That, like a wounded snake, drags its slow length along.
  • True ease in writing comes from art, not chance,
    As those move easiest who have learned to dance
    .
    'Tis not enough no harshness gives offense;
    The sound must seem an echo to the sense.
    Soft is the strain when Zephyr gently blows,
    And the smooth stream in smoother numbers flows;
    But when loud surges lash the sounding shore,
    The hoarse rough verse should like the torrent roar.
    When Ajax strives some rock's vast weight to throw,
    The line too labours, and the words move slow:
    Not so when swift Camilla scours the plain,
    Flies o'er th' unbending corn, and skims along the main.
  • At ev'ry Trifle scorn to take Offence,
    That always shows Great Pride, or Little Sense.
  • Yet not let each gay turn thy rapture move;
    For fools admire, but men of sense approve.
  • Some judge of authors' names, not works, and then
    Nor praise nor blame the writings, but the men.
  • What woeful stuff this madrigal would be,
    In some starved hackney sonneteer, or me!
    But let a lord once own the happy lines,
    How the wit brightens! how the style refines!
  • But let a lord once own the happy lines,
    How the wit brightens! how the style refines!
  • Some praise at morning what they blame at night,
    But always think the last opinion right.
  • We think our fathers fools, so wise we grow;
    Our wiser sons, no doubt, will think us so.
  • Fondly we think we honour Merit then,
    When we but praise Our selves in Other Men.
  • Envy will merit as its shade pursue,
    But like a shadow proves the substance true.
  • Be thou the first true Merit to befriend;
    His praise is lost, who stays till All commend.
  • Ah ne'er so dire a Thirst of Glory boast,
    Nor in the Critick let the Man be lost!
    Good-Nature and Good-Sense must ever join;
    To err is human, to forgive divine.
    • Lines 322-325. Compare: "To step aside is human ", Robert Burns, Address to the Unco Guid.
  • All seems Infected that th' Infected spy,
    As all looks yellow to the Jaundic'd Eye.

Part III[edit]

  • Learn then what morals critics ought to show,
    For 'tis but half a judge's task, to know.
  • Be silent always when you doubt your sense.
  • And make each day a critic on the last.
  • 'Tis not enough your Counsel still be true,
    Blunt Truths more Mischief than nice Falsehoods do;
    Men must be taught as if you taught them not;
    And Things unknown propos'd as Things forgot.
  • The bookful blockhead, ignorantly read,
    With loads of learned lumber in his head,
    With his own tongue still edifies his ears,
    And always list'ning to himself appears.
    All books he reads, and all he reads assails.
  • Most authors steal their works, or buy;
    Garth did not write his own Dispensary.
  • No Place so Sacred from such Fops is barr'd,
    Nor is Paul's Church more safe than Paul's Church-yard:
    Nay, fly to Altars; there they'll talk you dead;
    For fools rush in where angels fear to tread.
    • Lines 63 to 66. Compare: "Wrens make prey where eagles dare not perch", William Shakespeare, King Richard III, Act I, Sc. 3.
  • But where's the man who counsel can bestow,
    Still pleased to teach, and yet not proud to know?
  • Led by the light of the Mæonian star.
  • Content if hence th' unlearn'd their wants may view,
    The learn'd reflect on what before they knew.
    • Line 180. Compare: "Indocti discant et ament meminisse periti" (translated: "Let the unlearned learn, and the learned delight in remembering"). This Latin hexameter, which is commonly ascribed to Horace, appeared for the first time as an epigraph to President Hénault's Abrégé Chronologique, and in the preface to the third edition of this work Hénault acknowledges that he had given it as a translation of this couplet.
  • Careless of censure, nor too fond of fame,
    Still pleased to praise, yet not afraid to blame,
    Averse alike to flatter or offend,
    Not free from faults, nor yet too vain to mend.

About[edit]

  • The Essay on Criticism...displays such extent of comprehension, such nicety of distinction, such acquaintance with mankind, and such knowledge both of ancient and modern learning as are not often attained by the maturest age and longest experience.
  • One of [Pope's] greatest though of his earliest works is the Essay on Criticism, which if he had written nothing else would have placed him among the first criticks and the first poets, as it exhibits every mode of excellence that can embellish or dignify didactick composition, selection of matter, novelty of arrangement, justness of precept, splendour of illustration, and propriety of digression. I know not whether it be pleasing to consider that he produced this piece at twenty, and never afterwards excelled it: he that delights himself with observing that such powers may be so soon attained, cannot but grieve to think that life was ever after at a stand.

External links[edit]

'Tis not enough no harshness gives offense;
The sound must seem an echo to the sense.
Soft is the strain when Zephyr gently blows,
And the smooth stream in smoother numbers flows.
But when loud surges lash the sounding shore,
The hoarse rough verse should like the torrent roar.

An Essay on Criticism is one of the first major poems written by the English writer Alexander Pope (1688–1744). It is the source of the famous quotations "To err is human, to forgive divine," "A little learning is a dang'rous thing" (frequently misquoted as "A little knowledge is a dang'rous thing"), and "Fools rush in where angels fear to tread." It first appeared in 1711[1] after having been written in 1709, and it is clear from Pope's correspondence[2] that many of the poem's ideas had existed in prose form since at least 1706. Composed in heroic couplets (pairs of adjacent rhyming lines of iambic pentameter) and written in the Horatian mode of satire, it is a verse essay primarily concerned with how writers and critics behave in the new literary commerce of Pope's contemporary age. The poem covers a range of good criticism and advice, and represents many of the chief literary ideals of Pope's age.

Pope contends in the poem's opening couplets that bad criticism does greater harm than bad writing:

'Tis hard to say, if greater Want of Skill
Appear in Writing or in Judging ill,
But, of the two, less dang'rous is th' Offence,
To tire our Patience, than mis-lead our Sense
Some few in that, but Numbers err in this,
Ten Censure wrong for one who Writes amiss;
A Fool might once himself alone expose,
Now One in Verse makes many more in Prose. ... (1–8)

Despite the harmful effects of bad criticism, literature requires worthy criticism.

Pope delineates common faults of poets, e.g., settling for easy and cliché rhymes:

And ten low words oft creep in one dull line:
While they ring round the same unvaried chimes,
With sure returns of still expected rhymes;
Wher'er you find "the cooling western breeze",
In the next line, it "whispers through the trees";
If crystal streams "with pleasing murmurs creep",
The reader's threatened (not in vain) with "sleep" ... (347–353)

Throughout the poem, Pope refers to ancient writers such as Virgil, Homer, Aristotle, Horace and Longinus. This is a testament to his belief that the "Imitation of the ancients" is the ultimate standard for taste. Pope also says, "True ease in writing comes from art, not chance, / As those move easiest who have learned to dance" (362–363), meaning poets are made, not born.

As is usual in Pope's poems, the Essay concludes with a reference to Pope himself. Walsh, the last of the critics mentioned, was a mentor and friend of Pope who had died in 1710.

An Essay on Criticism was famously and fiercely attacked by John Dennis, who is mentioned mockingly in the work. Consequently, Dennis also appears in Pope's later satire, The Dunciad.

Part II of An Essay on Criticism includes a famous couplet:

A little learning is a dangerous thing;
Drink deep, or taste not the Pierian spring.

This is in reference to the spring in the Pierian Mountains in Macedonia, sacred to the Muses. The first line of this couplet is often misquoted as "a little knowledge is a dangerous thing".

The Essay also gives this famous line (towards the end of Part II):

To err is human, to forgive divine.

The phrase "fools rush in where angels fear to tread" from Part III has become part of the popular lexicon, and has been used for and in various works.

See also[edit]

  • Dunning–Kruger effect, the empirically observed pattern that individuals possessing a nonzero but low degree of competence in a field tend to overestimate their competence whereas individuals possessing high competence in that field tend to accurately assess or even underestimate their competence relative to others'

References[edit]

  1. ^An Essay on Criticism (1 ed.). London: Printed for W.Lewis in Russel Street, Covent Garden; and Sold by W.Taylor at the Ship in Pater-Noster Row, T.Osborn near the Walks, and J. Graves in St. James Street. 1711. Retrieved 21 May 2015.  via Google books
  2. ^22 October 1706: Correspondence, i.23–24.

External links[edit]

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