The universality of management is an important concept to consider in modern management thought. When describing management as universal, we refer to the widespread practice of management in all types of organizations. As noted before, one cannot bring a group of people together, regardless of the nature of the endeavor, and expect them to accomplish objectives unless their efforts are coordinated. Among other things, plans must be outlined, task identified, authority relationship specified, lines of communication established, and leadership excercised. Management, therefore, is required before any organization can expect to be effective.Although management is universal, we should not assume that all managers are the same; if, for no other reason, diffrences exist because no two individuals are alike. However, all managers perform broad groups of duties that are smiliar. These groups of duties are the functions of planning, organizing, actuating, and controlling. Although the responsibilities associated with performing the functions vary among levels of authority, managers at all material resouces. Since the management functions must be performed to some degree in order to achieve dsdired goals, we can say that there is, indeed, a universality of management.
Management principle are universal; that is why, the apply to all types of organizations including but not limited to FOR PROFIT AND NOT FOR PROFIT ones like businesses, churches,sororities, athletic teams, hospitals and so on.
Manager’s jobs vary somewhat from one type of organization to another because each organizational type requires the use of specialized knowledge, exists in a unique working and political environment, and uses different technology. However, there are job similarities across organizations because the basic management activities – planning, organizing, influencing, and controlling are common to all organizations.
The basic ingredients of successful management are applicable to all organizations.
Management skill is the ability to carry out the process of reaching organization goals by working with and through people and other organizational resources.
Learning about management skill and focusing on developing it are of critical importance since possessing such skill is generally considered to be the prerequisite for management success.
Katz indicates that 3 types of skills are important for successful management performance: technical, human and conceptual skills.
* TECHNICAL SKILLS:
Technical skills are skills involving the ability to apply specialized knowledge and expertise to work related techniques and procedures.
Examples of these skills are engineering, computer programming, and accounting. Technical skills are mostly related to working with “things” – processes or physical objects.
Human skills are skill that build cooperation with the team being led. They involve working with attitudes and communication, individual and group interests – in short, working with people.
Conceptual Skills involve the ability to see the organization as a whole. A manager with conceptual skills is able to understand how various functions of the organization complement one another, how the organization relates to its environment, and how changes in one part of the organization affect the rest of the organization.
As a manager grows, the need for conceptual skills increases.
Human skills are required at all levels.
MANAGEMENT SKILL: A contemporary View:
The major activities that the modern managers typically perform are of 3 basic types:
- Task Related Activities: Task related activities are management efforts aimed at carrying out critical management related duties in organizations. Such activities include short term planning, clarifying objectives of jobs in organizations, and monitoring operations and performance.
- People Related Activities: People related activities are management efforts aimed at managing people in organizations. Such activities include providing support and encouragement to others, providing recognition for achievements and contributions,developing skill and confidence or organization members,consulting when making decisions, and empowering others to solve problem.
- Change Related Activities: Change related activities are management efforts aimed at modifying organizational components. Such activities include monitoring organization’s external environment, proposing new strategies and vision, encouraging innovative thinking, and taking risks to promote needed change.
To increase the probability of being successful, managers should have competence in :
- Clarifying Roles
- Monitoring Operations
- Short term Planning
- Envisioning Change
- Taking risks for Change
- Encourge Innovative Thinking
- External Monitoring
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