The extended essay should be written in a clear, correct and formal academic style, appropriate to the subject from which the topic is drawn. Given that the extended essay is a formally written research paper, it should strive to maintain a professional, academic look.
To help achieve this, the following formatting is required:
- 12-point, readable font (Calibri or Times New Roman);
- double spacing throughout entire Essay;
- page numbering - top right corner;
- no candidate or school name or supervisor name on the title page or page headers.
Submitting the extended essay in the required format will help set the tone of the essay and will aid readability for on-screen assessment by examiners.
The structure of the essay is very important. It helps students to organize the argument, making the best use of the evidence collected.
There are six required elements of the final work to be submitted. More details about each element are given in the “Presentation” section. Please note that the order in which these elements are presented here is not necessarily the order in which they should be written.
Six required elements of the extended essay:
- Title page
- Contents page
- Body of the essay
- References and bibliography -- if MLA "Works Cited" if CSE "References"
1. Required Title Page
The title page should include only the following information:
- the title of the essay
- the research question
- the subject the essay is registered in (if it is a language essay also state which category it falls into; if a world studies essay also state the theme and the two subjects utilized)
- word count
The upper limit is 4,000 words for all extended essays.
Please note: Examiners are instructed not to read or assess any material in excess of the word limit. This means that essays containing more than 4,000 words will be compromised across all assessment criteria. Given the holistic nature of the assessment criteria, students who write in excess of the word limit will self-penalize across all criteria.
2. Required Contents Page
A contents page must be provided at the beginning of the extended essay and all pages should be numbered. Please note that an index page is not required and if included will be treated as if it is not present.
3. Required Introduction
The introduction should tell the reader what to expect in the essay. The introduction should make clear to the reader the focus of the essay, the scope of the research, in particular an indication of the sources to be used, and an insight into the line of argument to be taken.
While students should have a sense of the direction and key focus of their essay, it is sometimes advisable to finalize the introduction once the body of the essay is complete.
4. Required Body of the Essay (research, analysis, discussion, and evaluation)
The main task is writing the body of the essay, which should be presented in the form of a reasoned argument. The form of this varies with the subject of the essay but as the argument develops it should be clear to the reader what relevant evidence has been discovered, where/how it has been discovered and how it supports the argument. In some subjects, for example, the sciences, sub-headings within the main body of the essay will help the reader to understand the argument (and will also help the student to keep on track). In structuring their extended essay, students must take into consideration the expected conventions of the subject in which their extended essay is registered.
Once the main body of the essay is complete, it is possible to finalize the introduction (which tells the reader what to expect) and the conclusion (which says what has been achieved, including notes of any limitations and any questions that have not been resolved).
Any information that is important to the argument must not be included in appendices or footnotes/endnotes. The examiner will not read notes or appendices, so an essay that is not complete in itself will be compromised across the assessment criteria.
5. Required Conclusion
The conclusion says what has been achieved, including notes of any limitations and any questions that have not been resolved. While students might draw conclusions throughout the essay based on their findings, it is important that there is a final, summative conclusion at the end. This conclusion(s) must relate to the research question posed.
6. Required References & Bibliography
Students should use their chosen style of academic referencing as soon as they start writing. That way they are less likely to forget to include a citation. It is also easier than trying to add references at a later stage. For more information on this, refer to the guidelines in the IB document Effective citing and referencing.
Writing the essay takes time but if students have used their Researcher's reflection space and reflection sessions in a meaningful way they should be well prepared to develop their arguments.
What do you know about globalization? What is its impact on the society and natural environment?
In brief, world studies is an interdisciplinary science that refers to the analysis of the cause and effect of globalization and its influence on Earth. I dare say that world studies is very important for the understanding and improvement of our life. Why should we know about global studies? The answer is very simple. Our world does not have any borders. For that reason, people live in multicultural communities studying, working and entertaining together. This science refers to political studies, philosophy, economics, sociology, healthcare, ecology, etc. I want to inform you about the nature of world studies and the core elements of this science.The knowledge about world studies is vital nowadays. We live in a very dynamic and challenging world. Trends in business, politics, fashion, etc. spread around the planet with the speed of a lightning. When a corporation manufactures stylish jeans, they will be popular everywhere in a month. When a company invents an offbeat and majestic smartphone, the device will conquer the entire international market in several hours. I guess that it is essential to emphasize that our world is smaller than it used to be. One can buy a ticket and fly to another part to the world by plane. The whole adventure takes no more than twelve hours. For that reason, the representatives of different cultures have begun to communicate and cooperate with one another. No wonder, modern Americans or Englishmen learn Chinese or Japanese in order to be able to communicate with these people better.
People learn about other cultures in order to establish business contacts and cultural relations.
Overtly, we should get to know about the cause and effect of such social problems as unemployment, poverty, migration, overpopulation, etc. There are many troublesome hot points in the world that suffer from various military conflicts. Without doubt, such places are dangerous and unfavorable for life. People suffer from poverty and hunger there. Therefore, they decide to escape from such places looking for better conditions. Migration is divided into legal and illegal. Legal immigrants gain help from the officials of the host country. Illegal immigrants on their turn do not receive anything being unable to work and live legally. Such people are targets of abuse, human trafficking, exploitation, etc. Finally, when a country is overloaded with immigrants, the problem of unemployment occurs reducing the level and quality of life there.
It is impossible to omit economic issues in the context of world studies. There is hardly a country that exists separately from the rest of the world. The economy of every country is connected with the global economy. Money and products circulate around the whole planet. Experts predict that in a few decades it will be possible to create a single currency for all countries. It will make financial transactions easier and faster. At long last, people will no longer lose money during the process of currency exchange.
World studies touches upon the environmental issues and ecological future of our planet. Pollution, deforestation and extinction of biological species are extremely pertinent problems now. People need to invent the best method of energy production that will help them stop using oil, gas and coal.
Apparently, these resources are the worst pollutants that contaminate water, air and soil. People should learn how to save fresh water and supply themselves with food. They should think about the solution of the problem of global warming whereas it is dangerous for our civilization. People ought to stop cutting down forests and killing wild animals for any reasons. In simple words, we should coexist with the wildlife peacefully.
World studies is an absorbing, imposing and broad discipline that dwells on everything that influences our life. At first glance, such disciplines as political sciences, economics, ecology, sociology, etc. do not have any common features. However, these sciences are interconnected. For instance, politics influences economy and life satisfaction. Ecology depends on business and prosperity of the state. Poverty and hunger depend on unemployment, social inequality and inadequate domestic and outer policy. These components cannot exist separately. Every problem has its cause and effect.
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